|Series||Discussion paper series / Centre for Economic Policy Research -- no.549, Discussion paper series -- no.549.|
|Contributions||Centre for Economic Policy Research.|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||42|
Bulgaria, a former communist country that entered the EU in , has an open economy that historically has demonstrated strong growth, but its per-capita income remains the lowest among EU members and its reliance on energy imports and foreign demand for its exports makes its growth sensitive to external market conditions. The principal conclusion is that the economic science in Bulgaria has undergone sufficiently serious and profound changes in its subject matter and methodology of research Author: Mitko Dimitrov. Economic Indicators. For the latest forecasts on the economic impacts caused by the coronavirus pandemic, please consult the OECD Economic Outlook Interim Report Coronavirus: the world economy at risk (March ) and the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID for the key economic responses from governments.. Bulgaria entered the EU in . exchange rate fluctuations and economic activity 97 demand shifts increas e the price level, d ecrea sing the real effective exchange ra te, which has an expansionary effect on the output : Magda Kandil.
In addition, central banks can focus on the role of the effects of exchange rates on real economic activity when determining their interest rate policy. Accordingly, employed a theoretical model, namely a type of DSGE model to analyze the consequences of real exchange rate volatility on business cycles. Output volatility increased by up to 22% as the share of foreign denominated debt Author: Oguzhan Ozcelebi. The foreign exchange (FX or FOREX) market is the market where exchange rates are determined. Exchange rates are the mechanisms by which world currencies are tied together in the global marketplace, providing the price of one currency in terms of Size: KB. The Exchange Rate and Inflation: The exchange rate affects the rate of inflation in a number of direct and indirect ways: Changes in the prices of imported goods and services – this has a direct effect on the consumer price index. For example, an appreciation of the exchange rate usually reduces the price of imported consumer goods and durables, raw materials and capital goods. Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of Trade Policy in Transition Economies1 the domestic currency costs of earning a unit of foreign exchange or of replacing a unit of foreign currency spent on imports will differ among industries as they do in a multiple exchange rate regime. The Czech Exchange Rate and Economic Fundamentals.
The economy of Bulgaria functions on the principles of the free market, having a large private sector and a smaller public one. Bulgaria is an industrialised upper-middle-income country according to the World Bank, and is a member of the European Union (EU), World Trade Organization (WTO), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and Organization of the Black Sea Economic Currency: Bulgarian lev (BGN). A foreign exchange transaction is an agreement between a buyer and a seller that a given amount of one currency is to be delivered at a specified rate for some other currency. A foreign exchange rate is the price of a foreign currency. A foreign exchange quotation or quote is a statement of willingness to buy or sell at an announced rate. This chapter introduces the different exchange rate regimes and analyzes the factors that influence the best choice of exchange rate regime to be adopted by an economy. It explores the economic implications for the different regimes, seeking to identify elements that should be taken into consideration when choosing an exchange rate regime. The Statistics Pocket Book is published each month on the same day as the Monthly Bulletin. It provides data with the same cut-off date but structured in a slightly different way. It contains selected macroeconomic indicators for the individual Member States of the European Union, as well as comparisons between the euro area, the United States.